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How does climate affect maize production?

How does climate affect maize production?

At a high temperature of 35°C, maize yield reduces by 9% with a one-inch reduction in rainfall [23]. Thus, even if plant breeders have developed maize varieties that grow well under different biophysical environments [33], sound maize productivity is still under threat by climate change effects.

What affects maize production?

Production of maize, especially in the tropical regions, is affected by a number of constraints, including an array of abiotic and biotic stresses, poor soil fertility, lack of access to key inputs (especially quality seed and fertilizers), low levels of mechanization and poor post-harvest management.

Why is maize so important to South Africa?

Maize is the most important grain crop in South Africa, being both the major feed grain and the staple food for the majority of the South African population. This is because maize also serves as a raw material for manufactured products such as paper, paint, textiles, medicine and food.

How does climate change affect corn?

Productivity of corn is reduced when extreme temperature events occur during pollination and is further exaggerated when there are water deficits at pollination. During the grain-filling period, warm temperatures above the upper threshold cause a reduction in yield.

How is the drought affecting maize in South Africa?

Drought affects maize. Parts of South Africa now seem to be desert lands due to the drought which has affected the agricultural sector of South Africa. In South Africa five of the nine provinces have been declared disaster regions, due to lack of crop growth for this season, which was brought on by El Nino weather.

How much maize was produced in South Africa in 1936?

Moreover, South Africa’s smallholder or non-commercial farmers planted 755 366 hectares of maize in 1936/37 production season, and only harvested 218 000 tonnes, with poor yields of about 0.3 tonnes per hectares (see Figure 1).

Which is the most important crop in South Africa?

Maize is the most important grain crop in South Africa, being both the major feed grain and the staple food for the majority of the South African population. About 60% of maize produced in South Africa is white and the other 40% is yellow maize.

What kind of diseases can affect a maize plant?

Fungi, bacteria and viruses can affect all the different parts of the plant including the roots, stems, leaves and the cobs. The latter can have the largest affect on yield when it comes to harvesting the crop, the maize grade will also be affected negatively.